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Finding Absolute Maximum And Minimums Homework For Kids

Definition of a concave up curve: f(x) is "concave up" at x0 if and only if f '(x) is increasing at x0

Definition of a concave down curve: f(x) is "concave down" at x0 if and only if f '(x) is decreasing at x0

The second derivative test: If f ''(x) exists at x0 and is positive, then f ''(x) is concave up at x0. If f ''(x0) exists and is negative, then f(x) is concave down at x0. If f ''(x) does not exist or is zero, then the test fails.

Local (Relative) Extrema

Definition of a local maxima: A function f(x) has a local maximum at x0 if and only if there exists some interval I containing x0 such that f(x0) >= f(x) for all x in I.

Definition of a local minima: A function f(x) has a local minimum at x0 if and only if there exists some interval I containing x0 such that f(x0) <= f(x) for all x in I.

Occurrence of local extrema: All local extrema occur at critical points, but not all critical points occur at local extrema.

The first derivative test for local extrema: If f(x) is increasing (f '(x) > 0) for all x in some interval (a, x0] and f(x) is decreasing (f '(x) < 0) for all x in some interval [x0, b), then f(x) has a local maximum at x0. If f(x) is decreasing (f '(x) < 0) for all x in some interval (a, x0] and f(x) is increasing (f '(x) > 0) for all x in some interval [x0, b), then f(x) has a local minimum at x0.

The second derivative test for local extrema: If f '(x0) = 0 and f ''(x0) > 0, then f(x) has a local minimum at x0. If f '(x0) = 0 and f ''(x0) < 0, then f(x) has a local maximum at x0.

Absolute Extrema

Definition of absolute maxima: y0 is the "absolute maximum" of f(x) on I if and only if y0 >= f(x) for all x on I.

Definition of absolute minima: y0 is the "absolute minimum" of f(x) on I if and only if y0 <= f(x) for all x on I.

The extreme value theorem: If f(x) is continuous in a closed interval I, then f(x) has at least one absolute maximum and one absolute minimum in I.

Occurrence of absolute maxima: If f(x) is continuous in a closed interval I, then the absolute maximum of f(x) in I is the maximum value of f(x) on all local maxima and endpoints on I.

Occurrence of absolute minima: If f(x) is continuous in a closed interval I, then the absolute minimum of f(x) in I is the minimum value of f(x) on all local minima and endpoints on I.

Alternate method of finding extrema: If f(x) is continuous in a closed interval I, then the absolute extrema of f(x) in I occur at the critical points and/or at the endpoints of I.
(This is a less specific form of the above.)

Definition of an increasing function: A function f(x) is "increasing" at a point x0 if and only if there exists some interval I containing x0 such that f(x0) > f(x) for all x in I to the left of x0 and f(x0) < f(x) for all x in I to the right of x0.

Definition of a decreasing function: A function f(x) is "decreasing" at a point x0 if and only if there exists some interval I containing x0 such that f(x0) < f(x) for all x in I to the left of x0 and f(x0) > f(x) for all x in I to the right of x0.

The first derivative test: If f '(x0) exists and is positive, then f '(x) is increasing at x0. If f '(x) exists and is negative, then f(x) is decreasing at x0. If f '(x0) does not exist or is zero, then the test tells fails.

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