Very few people are either wholly good or wholly evil, and the inhabitants of Maycomb are no exception. The moral evaluation of someone as being evil is usually made on the basis of ignorance and prejudice. An obvious example in To Kill a Mockingbird would be Boo Radley. We sense that there's more than meets the eye in this strange, demonic figure of legend, but it's only later that we find out just what a gentle soul he really is.
Mrs. Dubose gives the impression of being a vicious, twisted old lady, an unreconstructed racist who spits out fire and fury at the Finch children each time they walk past her front porch. Yet for all her many faults, Mrs. Dubose is a deeply courageous woman, fighting hard to ward off her addiction to morphine.
Walter Cunningham is the leader of a frightening lynch mob that descends upon the jailhouse to mete out summary justice to Tom Robinson. Once again, however, it's Atticus's empathy, his unfailing ability to put himself in someone else's shoes, that helps us to gain a better understanding of another person's character. Walter, like just about every white person in town, is a racist, but he's also a fundamentally proud, decent man who makes his own way in the world, refusing to be anyone's charity case despite being dirt-poor. Scout understands this and, following the example of her father, establishes a connection with Walter Cunningham as a human being. Because of this, she's able to head off a potential lynching.
To Kill a Mockingbird, novel by Harper Lee, published in 1960. An enormously popular novel, it was translated into some 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies worldwide, and it won a Pulitzer Prize in 1961. The novel has been widely praised for its sensitive treatment of a child’s awakening to racism and prejudice in the American South.
SUMMARY: The story takes place in a small Alabama town in the 1930s and is told predominately from the point of view of six-to-nine-year-old Jean Louise ("Scout") Finch. She is the daughter of Atticus Finch, a white lawyer hired to defend Tom Robinson, a black man falsely accused of raping a white woman. A coming-of-age story of an intelligent, unconventional girl, To Kill a Mockingbird portrays Scout’s growing awareness of the hypocrisy and prejudice present in the adult world.
DETAIL: Set in Depression-era Alabama, this classic novel weaves together a young girl’s coming-of-age story and a darker drama about the roots and consequences of racism, probing how good and evil can coexist within a single community or individual. Scout, the novel’s protagonist, is raised with her brother, Jem, by their widowed father, Atticus Finch. He is a prominent lawyer who speaks to them as competent interlocutors and encourages them to be empathetic and philosophical, rather than swept away by the superstition bred of ignorance.
Atticus lives his convictions when a spurious rape charge is brought against Tom Robinson, one of the town’s black residents. Atticus agrees to defend him, puts together a case that gives a more plausible interpretation of the evidence, then prepares for the town’s attempts to intimidate him into abandoning his client to their lynch mob. As the furor escalates, Tom is convicted and Bob Ewell, the Robinson plaintiff, tries to punish Atticus with an unimaginably brutal act.
The children, meanwhile, play out their own miniaturized drama of prejudice and superstition centering on Boo Radley, a local legend who remains shut inside his brother’s house. They have their own ideas about him and cannot resist the allure of trespassing on the Radley property. Their speculations thrive on the dehumanization perpetuated by their elders; Atticus reprimands them, however, and tries to encourage a more sensitive attitude. Boo then makes his presence felt indirectly through a series of benevolent acts, finally intervening in a dangerous situation to protect Jem and Scout. Scout’s continuing moral education is twofold: to resist abusing others with unfounded negativity, but also the necessity of perseverance when these values are inevitably, and sometimes violently, subverted.
In 2015 Lee released a second novel, Go Set a Watchman, composed before To Kill a Mockingbird but essentially a sequel featuring Scout as an adult woman in New York City who returns to her Alabama home to visit her father.